First Watch the videos and answer the questions in discussion form. https://yout

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First Watch the videos and answer the questions in discussion form. Second I already pick the source just read it and answer the second part of the discussion. The Epic of Gilgamesh Gilgamesh, an early ruler of ancient Uruk, was the supreme hero of Mesopotamian legend. He was a successful ruler, boastful and vain, as well as a courageous adventurer and a devoted friend to his companion Enkidu. The Gilgamesh epic, constructed in the early second millennium scE from numerous stories, is the oldest piece of world literature. It portrays a tragic hero who is obsessed with glory and whose quest for immortality ends in failure . The following excerpt tells of his anguish on his fruitless journey to gain immortal life. He is speaking to an alewife (a woman who keeps an alehouse) as he continues to deny his humanity and the inevitability of death. The alewife spoke to him, to Gilgamesh, “If you are truly Gilgamesh, that struck down the Guardian, Destroyed Humbaba, who lived in the Pine Forest, Killed lions at the mountain passes, Seized the Bull of Heaven who came down from the sky, struck him down, Why are your cheeks wasted, your face dejected, Yo ur heart so wretched, your appearance worn out, A nd grief in your innermost being? Yo ur face is like that of a long-distance traveler, Your face is w eathered by cold and heat. .. Clad on ly in a lion skin you roam open country.” Gilgamesh spoke to her, to Siduri the alewife , ” How co uld my cheeks not be wasted, my fa ce not dej ected . Nor my heart wretched, nor my appear- ance worn out, Nor grief in my innermost being, Nor my face like that of a long-distance traveler, My friend whom I love so much, who Experienced every hardship with me, Enkidu, whom I love so much, who expe- rienced every hardship with me- The fate of mortals conquered him! Six days and seven nights I wept over him, I did not allow him to be buried, until a worm fell out of his nose. I was frightened and .. . I am afraid of Death, and so I roam open country. The words of my friend weigh upon me. I roam open country for long distances; the words of my friend Enkidu we igh upon me. I roam open country on long journeys. How, 0 how, co uld I stay silent, how 0 how cou ld I keep quiet My fr iend wh om I love has turned t o cla y: Enkidu my friend whom I love has turned to clay. Am I not like him? Must I lie down too, Never to rise, eve r again?” QUESTIONS FOR ANALYSIS • What lines of the passage reveal how Gilgamesh feels about the death of Enkidu? Why does he feel that way? • What does this passage te ll us about human relationships and human nature during this period? What does it tell us about ru lers and their relationsh ip with their gods? Source: · rhe Epic of Gilgamesh” from Myths from Mes o potamia: Creat io n, Th e Flood, Giigame sh arid Others, pp. 100-101, trans. Ste phanie Dalley. ©-Stephanie Dalley 1989. Reprinted with permission of Oxford University Press. · leaders. Even in the new system, though , kings could not rule without the support of nobles and merchants. Over the centuries, powerfu l Mesopotamian kings contin- ued to expand their territories. They su bdued weaker neigh- bo rs , coaxing or fo rcing them to beco me vassal states-that is, allies who had to pay tribute in luxury goods, raw materials, md manpower as part of a broad con federation of polities under .he kings’ protection. Control over military resources (access o metals for weaponry and , later, to herds of horses fo r puli- ng chariots) was necessary to gain dominance, but it was no ~arantee of success. The ruler’s charisma also mattered. This emphasis on personality exp lains why Meso potamian kingdoms were strong for certain periods under certain rulers, but vulner- able to rivals and neighbors under other rulers. It also distin- guished them from Middle Kingdom Egypt and Hittite Ana tolia, territorial states where power was more institutionalized and durable. The most famous Mesopotamian ruler of this period was Hammurapi (o r Hammura bi) (r. 1792- 1750 BCE), who ascended the throne as the sixth king of Old Ba bylonia’s First Dynasty. Continuously struggling with powerful neighbors, he sought to ce ntralize state authority and to create a new legal order. Using.


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